I. Chapter 1

A.  Energy
                1.  ability to do work OR
                2.  cause a change in matter
B.  Electromagnetic Radiation
                +.  energy given off by sun
                        a.  visible light - radiation you can see
                        b.  most EMR is invisible ( heat lamps )
                        c.  UV radiation
C.   Making Light
                 1.  campfires - energy stored is given off as light
                 2.  light bulbs
                 3.  light stick
                 4.  incandescent bulbs
                 5.  fluorescent bulbs
                 6.  lightning
D.  Historical contributions in light (F12- F1)

II. Chapter 1 :  Circles of  Light
A.  Lasers
                   1.  What uses lasers?
                        a.  supermarket checkouts
                        b.  CD players
                        c.  Concert lighting
                    2.  Traveling Lasers
                        a.  travel in straight line
                        b.  don't spread out
                        c.  travel long distance with no dimming
B.   Light as a Wave
                     1.  Wave - disturbance moving away from its starting point
                        a.  light travels in waves
                        b.  no air, water, or anything needed to carry them
                        c.  can travel in vacuum ( space empty of any matter )
                     2.   Shape of Wave
                        +.  wavelength - distance from crest to crest
                            1.  each color has different wavelength
                            2.  measured in nanometers ( one billionith of one meter )
                        a.  frequency - number of waves produced in one second
                            1.  measured in Hertz
                            2.  light in MegaHertz
                     3.   Speed of Light
                         a.  300,000 km/s or 183,000 mi/s
                         b.  could wrap around equator 7.5 times in one second
                         c.  speed depends on material through which it is moving
                      4.   Electromagnetic Spectrum
                         a.  energy related to wavelength ( shorter wavelength = more energy )
                         b.  Two things in common :
                                1.  in space, all travel at same speed
                                2.  can travel through vacuum

    III. Chapter 1

A.   Bouncing Light :  Dracula's Library
                    1.  Reflection - bouncing back of light from a surface
                    2.  Plane Mirror:  mirror with a flat surface
                        a.  Image is same size and shape as actual
                        b.  Image is reversed, right to left or vice versa
                    3.  Concave mirror
                        a.  Image is larger than object
                        b.  Concave mirror concentrates light
                    4.  Convex mirror
                        a.  image is smaller than actual object
                        b.  allows for seeing larger area
III.  Bending Light
                    1.  refraction - bending of light as it passes from one material to another
                        a.  light changes speed and causes refraction
                        b.  catching fish ( f25)
                        c.  water-in-road-mirage (f26)
I.   Chapter 2:  Exploritorium

A.               Lenses - transparent objects with at least one curved surface
                     1.  Convex - thicker in center than at edges
                        +.  focal point - convex lenses bring parallel light rays together at this point
                     2.  Concave - thicher at edges than in middle
                        a.  causes parallel rays to spread
                        b.  image is always smaller but right side up
                    3.  Correcting vision
                        a.  glasses - change path of light
                        b. contacts
                            +.  clear, thin lenses placed in front of cornea
                 B.   Telescopes
                        1.  Refracting - lenses refract to make images
                        2.  Reflecting - light hits mirror, reflects to focal point, and image forms
                        C.  Hubble telescope
                        D.  Microscope (f41)
                            1.  simple - one lens
                            2.  compound - two lenses
                            3.  electron microscope ( f43)
 


Chapter 3 : Part One


I.                  Sound Waves
                        A.  sound - form of energy that travels through matter as waves
                        B.  vibrations
                        C.  waves
                            1.  Compression
                            2.  Rarefaction
                            3.  Crest
                            4.  Trough
                        D.  Measuring sound waves
                            1.  wavelength
                            2.  frequency
                            3.  amplitude
                        E.  Quality of sound
                            1.  Overtones
                            2.  Timbre
 


Chapter 3 : Part Two



I.              When Sound Travels
                        A.  Sound waves travel less quickly than light waves do
                        B.  Speed depends on material and temperature of material
                        C.  Sound waves can travel only when there is matter to carry them
 
 

Chapter 3 : Part Three


I.                Wind Instruments - pitch depends on length of vibrating column of air
                        A.  Reed Instruments
                            1.  reed - short, thin piece of wood attached to mouthpiece
                            2.  valves control length of air column
                        B.  Brass Instruments
                            1.  player's lips vibrate against mouthpiece ( no reeds)
                            2.  valves control length of air column
        `               C.  Flutes - no reeds
II.                 Pitch - highness or lowness of sound
                        A.  high pitch - high frequency
                        B.  low pitch - low frequency
                        C.  octave - series of 8 notes
III.                Sound Synthesizer - electronic device that can produce a variety of sounds
                        A.  music - produce almost any musical sound
                        B.  speech - stores sounds later combined to produce sound
 

Chapter 4 : Part One

I.                    Volume - how loud or soft a sound is
II.                    Intensity - measure of energy of sound wave
III.                  Decibel - unit of measure for intensity and volume
IV.                  Noise pollution - occurrence of damaging sound in enviroment
 


Chapter 4 : Part Two


I.                      American Sign Language
                            A.  American Manual Sign Language - hand guestures make letters to spell
                                 out words.
                            B.  American Sign Language - sign single or groups of words
II.                    The Ear
                            A.  Auditory nerve
                            B.  Eustachian Tubes
                            C.  Semicircular canals
III.                    Help for hearing loss
                            A.  hearing aid - receives sound waves and converts them to electrical impulses
 


Chapter 4 : Part Three


I.                        Recorded Sound
                            A.  phonograph - Edison, 1877
                            B.  records - Berliner 1888
                            C.  audiocassettes
                            D.  CD
II.                        Delivering Information
                            A.  Information Superhighway
                            B.  Internet