Oceanography
Year of the Ocean
I.  Ocean Water

A.  What's in water? (Earth is 70%)
     1. Salt water (H2O + salts)
       a. sodium (Na)
       b. chloride (Cl)
       c. sediment:  settles to the bottom
    2. Measured salt=salinity (dissolved salts in water)
    3. Other Dissolved Substances (sodium chloride=NACL, magnesium=M, potassium=P)
    4. Dissolved Gases (nitrogen=N, carbon dioxide=CO2, oxygen=O2
    5. Plankton=living organisms
       a. phytoplankton=plant organisms
       b. zooplankton=animal organisms
    6. Sediments and Pollution
       a. natural sediment=shells, dirt
       b. pollution=fertilizer, waste, poison
B. The Bends
    +. scuba (Self-contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus)
 C. Ocean Temperature andPressure
    1. Sunlightzone
    2. Twilightzone
    3. Sunless zone (Depths)
*Temperature decreases (colder)as pressure increases
D. That's Dense
    1. Denser water sinks
    2. Salt water sinks because its more dense
 E. Creatures
    1. Plankton use photosynthesis (sun to make food) to make 80% of oxygen
    2. Nekton - swimming organisms
    3. Benthos - bottom of ocean floor organisms

II. Features of the OceanFloor

A. Continental Shelf
    1. covers 5% of the ocean
    2. between 500 to 1,205 feet deep
    3. formed by glaciers, sediments, and other material
 B. Continental Edge and the Continental Slope
    1. Continental edge:  where ocean drops off sharply
    2. Continental slope: boundary between the ocean floor and the continents
C. Continental Rise
    +Stretches to the deepest part of the ocean (4,700-6,500)
D. Abyssal Plain
    1. flattens out at the bottom (12,000 feet deep)
    2. Covers46% of the Earth's surface
    3. Trenches(steep-walled canyons)
E.  Mountain in the Sea
    1. Mid-OceanRidge (36,000 mile long mountain)
    2. Seamounts(feestanding volcanic mountains)
F.  Sediments
    1. Organic ooze (shells) covers 1/2 ocean floor
    2. Chemical and Mineral Deposits (gold, manganese)
    3. TurbidityCurrent (may cause sediment layers)
G.  Reading Past in Sediments
    +iridium layer may support meteorite theory
H. Sonar (sound navigation ranging)
I. Underwater Exploration (1985,Argo finds Titanic)
J. Exploring the Oceans
    1st: 1872 Challenger explored deep sea
    2nd: 1968 Glomar Challenger
    3rd: 1980s JOIDES goes 27,200 feet deep

III. Chapter 3: Ocean Motion
A.  Currents: rivers in theocean
    1. Surface Currents
       a.  westerly winds:  W to E (El Nino Current)
       b.  trade winds:  E to W ( Gulf Stream Current)
       c.  earth's rotation:  Coriolis effect
     2. Deep Ocean Currents
       a.  density:  cold water sinks; hot water rises
       b.  salinity:  dissolved salt makes water denser
    3. Upwelling: cold water forced up; hot water forced down
    4. Turbidity Currents: mixing of sediment in ocean
B.  Waves
    1. Cause:  moon's gravitational force, wind, earthquakes
    2. Measure waves:
       a.  period:  time for 2 waves crests to pass the same point
       b.  crest: peak (top)
       c.  trough: (bottom)
       d. crest to trough= wave height
       e.  trough to trough or crest to crest=wave length
       f.  distance wind blows over open water
C.  Tides:  fall andrise (2 highs and 2 lows in 24 hours)
    1. Causes
       a.  moon's gravitional pull causes high tide
    2. Types
       a.  Spring tide:  very high and very low
       b.  Neap tide:  less high and less low

IV. Ocean Resouces:  Chapter4

A.  Treasures From the Sea
    1. Food=seafood (overfishing)
    2. Aquaculture=ocean farming (lobster, salmon, oysters)
    3. Water=desalination (fresh water from salt water)
    4. Chemicals=water, salt, bromine, seaweed (agar added to candy, pet food,canned meat)
    5. Minerals and Fossil Fuels
       a. Red Sea mud:  iron, zinc, copper, silver
       b. 20% of world's oil and gas)
B.  Energy and the Sea
     1.  Power from waves ( computers calculate: ducks, incoming andinside waves)
    2. OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Consersion) measures heat energy
    3. Methane (colorless, odorless, burnable gas made by decomposing organicmatter)
C.  Pollution=waste
    1. Chain of Ocean Life
         -  plankton (zooplankton &phytoplankon)--smaller fish--seals,birds,--larger fish (shark), orca, dolphins, humans
     2. Sources
        a.  sewage
        b.  oil
        c.  chemicals (mercury)
        d.  fertilizers
     3.  Oil spil - 1989 Exxon Valdez (14,000 sea otters, fish, whales, birds)
     4.  Reduce Pollution
        - antipollution laws:  OceansAlive