Living Systems
A.  Parts of a cell:
       1.  Plant:   use photosynthesis (water and sunlight) to make food (sugars)
            a.  Cell wall:   outer cell covering that gives the cell its shape
            b.  Cell membrane:  thin layer around all cells that allows water and materials in and out of the cell
            c.  Nucleus:  controls the cell's activities
            d.  Vacuole:  storage area for food and wastes
            e.  Cytoplasm:  jellylike substance that fills the cell
            f.  Chloroplasts:  food making part of a plant cell that contains chlorophyll
        2.  Animal:  can't make their own food, must eat plants or meat or both, don't have cell walls or chloroplasts
B.  Kingdoms
        1.  Plant
            a.  vascular:  seeded plants ( e.g., flowers and cones)
            b.  nonvascular:  nonseeded plants  (e.g., ferns, liverworts, horsetails)
        2.  Animal
            a.  vertebrates
            b.  invertebrates
        3.  Fungi : reproduces using spores (e.g., mushroom, mold, yeast)
        4.  Moneran:  one-celled organisms that do not have a nucleus (bacteria and blue-green algae)
            -  Bacteria:  monerans that feed on dead matter or living things (e.g., bacillus, coccus, and spirillum)
            Viruses:  tinier than monerans (DNA or RNA) wrapped inside a capsule of protein)
        5.  Protists:  animal like, mostly single-celled organisms (e.g., protozoan, algae, diatoms, plankton), many live in water

The Virtual Cell:
                    a.  nonvascular plants (seedless):
                    b.   vascular plants (seeded):
                    a.  vertebrates:
                    b.  invertebrates: