The Solid Earth

Chapter I. Minerals
    a.  definition:  solid element or compound with defined chemical composition & crystal    shape.
    b.  properties:
        1.  luster:  the way  the mineral reflects light  (metallic, nonmetallic)
        2.  hardness:  how easily the mineral can be scratched (Moh's hardness test)
        3.  color:  the elements that make up a mineral determine its color
        4.  streak:  strike the mineral against a streak plate (ceramic tile)
        5.  cleavage:   split easily
    c.  How to use mineral properties
        1.  miners (e.g., pryite=fool's gold, gold=softer)
        2.  gemologist
    d.  diamonds
        1.  mined South Africa
        2.  luster
        3.  size (Hope Diamond)
    e.  quartz= (silicon + oxygen) example=amethyst
        1. concrete=sand, gravel, powder (binder)
        2.  glass
        3.  computer mineral (chips and solar cells in calcultors)=silicon
    f. iron
        1.  iron ore=iron plus other metals
        2.  two types of iron ore=hematite and magnetite
        3.  smelting=removes metal from the ore to steel
    g. A world of minerals
        1.   mining resources limited
        2.  recycle (aluminum)
Chapter 2:  Rocks
     a.  The Rock Key
        1.  crystals  (gneiss, schist, marble, granite, basalt)
                a. layers
                b. no layers
        2.  no crystals (sandstone, limestone, shale, pumice)
                a. layers
                b.  no layers
    b.  Types of Rocks=Rock Hounds
        1.  igneous=fire (hot, melted rock that cools and hardens)
            a. inside Earth=magma (granite, gabbro)
            b. outside Earth=lava (basalt, obsidian, rhyolite)
        2. sedimentary=settle (on Earth's crust and formed by wind and water)
            + sandstone, shale, limestone, conglomerate
                a. cementation=binding sediment together (sandstone)
                b. organic rock=remains of animals (limestone)
                c.  chemical sedimentary=water evaporates and leaves minerals behind
            +fossil=remains of organism from the past
        3. metamorphic=change in texture, size, shape of rocks
               a.  contact metamorphism=baked rock
               b.  regional metamorphism=deep buried rocks affected by temperature &pressure
               c.  burial methamorphism=weight puts pressure on rock
                d.  two types
                    1.  banded
                    2.  nonbanded
c.  quarry=mine rock
e.  brick=clay, mix with sediment, grind into powder, mix water, pour in molds, bake
Chapter 3:  Earth's Structures: Earth Forces "
a.  The Sphere We Live On
        1.  The crust=outer layer (6 to 40 miles thick), solid rock (igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic), broken into 9 plates
        2.  The mantle=below crust, thickest layer, molten rock (igneous rock=peridotite)
        3.   The inner and outer core
                a.  outer core= molten outer layer
                a.  inner core=solid iron and nickel, temperatures >9,0000 F (like sun!)
  b.   Journey to Earth's Center
        1.  rocks (e.g., kimberlite) formed from magma in mantle give scientists clues
        2.  1909 Andrija Mohorovic discovered the boundary between  crust and mantle
  c.   Sorting Through Time p. E76
       1.  fossil: remains and traces of living things preserved in rock
       2.  relative age: how old a rock is compared to other rocks
       3.  index fossils:  fossils of known age
       4.  absolute age:  scientists measure decaying element is present (e.g., potassium)
    d. All Bent Out of Shape
        1.  Forces Bend Rocks: folds=bend in a rock layer (caused by Earth's moving plates)
        2.  Appalachian Mountains:  Africa hit North America and folded the rocks (sedimentary)
            a.  anticline:  rocks fold up
            b.  syncline:  rocks fold downward
            c.  erosion:  weathering (wind, rain, gravity)
        3.  The Black Hills=dome mountains (granite), faces on Mount Rushmore
            a.  magma pushes upward deep inside the Earth
        4.  Grand Canyon
            a.  formed by Colorado River cutting through rock for 1.5 billion years
            b.  fault=break in the rock
        5.  California faults (San Andreas Fault)
            a.  earthquake=movement along a fault
                1.  focus=first starts
                2.  epicenter=center of the earthquake
                3.  Richter scale measure (0-9), machine (seismograph)